became possible to separate the concepts of nationality and language. Albert Barrera i Vidal (Liège) „Sympathetic but critical observations regarding language policy in Catalonia today“ traces the complex development of the relationship between Catalonian and Spanish, this being an intra-Romance example of internal language policy. Here a prehistory with changing fortunes was ended by the 19th century renaissance of Catalonian, which in turn was followed by systematic persecution during Franco’s time. Since then language policy has brought about equality of rights for the Catalonian language. There are even attempts to displace Spanish and turn Catalonia into a monolingual region. Such an extreme position (just like the former Franquist language policy) is viewed rather critically. Max Pfister (Saarbrücken) „Privileged and underprivileged linguistic minorities in South Tyrol and in the eastern part of North Italy“ draws attention to the fact that linguistic minorities may be treated variously even within the borders of one state, in this case Italy. The Romansh speaking minorities are privileged in various degrees depending on the respective provinces. In South Tyrol (Bolzano province) they profit from the autonomy status that was originally granted the German language (a minority language in Italy but a majority language within the province) whereas they receive no such support in the province of Belluno. These differences have consequences for the prestige and the chances of survival of the minority language. For obvious reasons, several contributions deal with the situation in the immediate neighbourhood of the conference venue, viz. Alsace-Lorraine. This German speaking region belonged variously to France and Germany. This and the rather uneasy relationship between the two states explains the many changes in language policy in the course of history. The fact that in this area (especially in Alsace) it is mostly the German dialects but not the standard language that is used adds to the complexity of the linguistic situation. Adrien Finck and Maryse Staiber (Strasbourg) „Regional language in Alsace“ describe this present linguistic situation. By introducing the term „regional language“ they insist that it covers both dialect and standard language. They also describe attempts to see the linguistic situation of Alsace with its bilingualism as an asset in the European context. Wolfgang Haubrichs (Saarbrücken) „The war of professors. Argumentation in the domain of language history and language politics during the contention for Alsace-Lorraine between 1871 and 1918“ devotes his contribution to a curious kind of war, viz. the linguistic and historical „war“ that raged between France and Germany from 1870 to 1918 because of Alsace-Lorraine. The arguments that both sides mustered in favour of their position show quite clearly how easy it is to abuse linguistic „facts“ for political purposes and how eager some scholars on both sides were to provide a scientific fig-leaf for such propaganda. Günter Scholdt (Saarbrücken) „,Cuius regio, eius lingua.4 Literary reflections of language policy in the German- French border areas after 1871“ shows how language policy is mirrored in literary texts on both sides. For a long time, the regional literature in general 26