Full text: Grenzkultur - Mischkultur?

Peter Heil 
From fortified Border towns to bourgeois Residential Towns 
Urban Reconstruction in Landau, Selestat, and Belfort between 1871 and 1914 
Between 1871 and 1914, that is between the end of the Franco-Prussian war and the beginning 
of World War I, the towns of Landau, Selestat and Belfort developed from rural fortresses into 
residential towns. Having been remodeled as fortresses by Vauban, master builder to Louis 
XIV, these towns were now able to remove their walls, which had hindered their development. 
This change lessened their character as border towns. In place of the fortresses, residential 
districts were to be built, creating comfortable living conditions. More important than villas for 
the few rich citizens, however, were affordable lodgings for workers. In Germany especially, it 
was local government that engaged in housing programmes, whereas in France, it was more 
often private entrepreneurs who took the initiative. 
Hans Heiss 
Successful Pacification? Bozen/Bolzano and the Tensions of National and 
Cultural Disputes 1919-1999 
Bozen/Bolzano is the capital of the Autonomous Province of Bozen-South Tyrol situated in the 
north of Italy. With a population of about 100,000 and a linguistic mixture of German, Italian, 
and Ladin speakers it is an important centre of service, trade, and industrial production. 
The historical development of Bozen in the mid 19^ century was determined by its character as 
a residential town open to tourism, by Catholicism and by national cultural tendencies. The First 
World War and the politics of Fascism changed this situation profoundly and led to 
considerable immigration of an Italian-speaking work force to satisfy the demands of forced 
industrialisation. The relationship between the German and Italian-speaking population was de¬ 
termined by segregation and few conflicts as a consequence. In spite of continuing segregation 
after the Second World War, there were gradual approaches between the two groups. In a time 
of rapid modernisation and expansion of the city limits due to construction the approach 
encounters difficulties and proceeds haltingly, but the chances for further positive developments 
are good. 
Ralf Krautkramer 
The Syrian Limes - Palmyra between the Imperium Romanum and the Persian 
When Rome expanded in the East and the Seleucid empire conquered Parthia two world powers 
with mutually exclusive ideologies faced each other in the region of Syria and Mesopotamia. It 
was in this contested zone that the oasis of Palmyra was situated, a merchant city that 

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